Stubborn and harsh natives
LINSCHOTEN, Jan Huygen van. Nauigatio ac itinerarium Iohannis Hugonis Linscotani in orientalem siue Lusitanorum Indiam. (Hague, 1599).
Provenance: Thomas Phillips, 1848.
Bernard and Picart often had no option but to use information from travel books such as Linschoten's Itinerario - the most significant early modern account of the the East and West Indies - in which indigenous people appear barely clothed and are said to be “stubborn and harsh”.
In 1584, Linschoten (1563-1611) travelled to Goa as an employee of the merchant-banker Fugger family. While in India he copied top-secret Portugese maps and charts of the East Indies. Returning to Holland in 1592, he prepared his notes and maps for the Amsterdam publisher Claeszoon in response to interest in the Netherlands and other European countries about commercial possibilities in Asia. As trade in the Far East was dependent on routes via America or Africa, his work eventually encompassed the entire globe, including Spanish and Portuguese activities in America.