Editions from the Roderic Bowen Library and Archives by Peter Mitchell

 John Milton

Beginning his poetic career with pastoral, as those whom he saw as his great precursors and poetic fathers, Virgil and Spenser, had done, Milton's Lycidas was published in 1638 at Cambridge, marking its author’s decisive and unambiguous commitment to the Spenserian tradition,1 and in 1645, he published a collection of poems written mostly during his seven years at Cambridge University, entitledPoems of Mr John Milton, in which pastoral features prominently. ‘With the exception of the later sonnets, all of Milton’s best-known minor poems appear in this little volume published inopportunely during the civil war.’2 Lampeter’s copy of this octavo volume is from the collection of Thomas Burgess (1756-1837).3 A Maske Presented At Ludlow Castle, more commonly known as Comus, and the Latin poems have each a special title-page.

The volume also includes Milton’s earliest dated poems, paraphrases of Psalms CXIV and CXXXVI, which a head note explains ‘were done by the Author at fifteen years old’, when Milton was completing his final year as a pupil at St Paul’s School in London and had begun his formal study of the Hebrew language and the Psalter, doubtless consulting the Hebrew text as well as the Greek and Latin versions of the psalms.4 It is claimed by Milton’s seventeenth-century biographer, John Toland, that after his twelfth year, the young Milton seldom went to bed before midnight, and spent this time studying.

Milton left St Paul’s for Christ’s College,Cambridge. During the seven years at Christ’s he composed mostly Latin poems ‘in which an excess of allusion leads one to suspect a rather self-conscious attitude to learning on the part of the poet’.5He was not attracted to a Church career under William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury from 1633; nor did he seek a political career under Charles I, but on leaving Cambridge resided with his father at Horton, near Colebrook, in Berkshire, and for a further five years studied, particularly in Greek and Latin writers.

‘By the time Milton had emerged from his years as a primarily Latin poet at the age of twenty-one, he was capable of writing poems in which his gifts as a poet are untrammelled by his learning.’6 But the first poem to contain the tensions, ambitions, and themes that would find expression in all Milton’s later work is his ode On the Morning of Christ’s Nativity. Various things suggest that Milton may have seen the Nativity Ode, as it is often called, as the first serious poem of a man who had dedicated his life to the composition of religious heroic poetry. He explained to his friend Charles Diodati that he had written the poem as a birthday gift for Jesus in the month of his own twenty-first birthday, December 1629, and in order to indicate its importance in his spiritual and poetic development he placed it first in his 1645 Poems. This had the effect of dedicating the volume to God.

The posture of submission and humility which Milton’s narrator adopts in desiring to ‘lay’ his ‘humble ode’ at the ‘blessèd feet’ of Christ, takes as its example the humility, perhaps humiliation, of Christ’s incarnation, described in the Ode in the following terms:

" That glorious form, that light insufferable, And that far-beaming blaze of majesty

He laid aside; and here with us to be Forsook the courts of everlasting day,

And chose with us a darksome house of mortal clay"  (ll. 8-14)

Milton’s poetic voice is heard asking his ‘heavenly Muse’ to ‘join thy voice unto the angel quire’ (l. 27), whose music of ‘unexpressive notes’ is said to ‘hold all heaven and earth in happier union’ for the Word becoming flesh. The poem invests Milton’s ‘nascent poetic subjectivity’ 7in identification with the infant incarnate Son of God and suggests that the gift of the Ode to the infant Christ is at the same time a gift of redemption to the human reader, ‘a redemption of which God himself is in every sense the author. Like the Incarnation itself, the text is to make present the divinity of Christ, the Word of God incarnate in words.’ 8This precocious aim and the attendant question - who is speaking in the text and with what authority? – are to characterise almost all Milton’s literary output and his ambition. 

But the narrator of the Nativity Ode realises that the moment of redemptive identification is only imaginary, a misrecognition, ‘for if such holy song’ as the angels and his ode make ‘Enwrap our fancy long, / Time will run back, and fetch the age of gold’ (ll. 133-35), the mythical golden age, Arcadia, or Eden:

" But wisest Fate says no, This must not yet be so,

The babe lies yet in smiling infancy That on the bitter cross

Must redeem our loss, So both himself and us to glorify" (ll. 149-53)

For Comus, published first in 1634 and again in the 1645 Poems,Milton adopted a characteristically Jonsonian form with courtly and aristocratic connotations and revised it. ‘Spenser was Milton’s true poetic “father”, but it was [Ben] Jonson, with his massive literary authority, who had caused a more immediate “anxiety of influence”.’9 Indeed Jonson’s influence is such that the poems of the 1645 volume have been described as ‘indistinguishable, except in the bite and power of some of them, from the products of the gentleman poets and courtiers of Charles I and Henrietta Maria’.10 The fact that they were published by Humphrey Moseley, a stationer of known royalist sympathies, has made it difficult to argue, as David Norbrook does, that they were expressions of alienation from the same court culture, a critique posed from within, and radical not only in their explicit political comments but in their underlying ‘visionary utopianism’.11 Critics continue to debate whether the Lady’s plea ‘for greater economic equality’ as against ‘lewdly-pampered Luxury’ acquires more weight than the social connotations of the genre, and whether Milton’s version of the masque redefines the genre in the Puritan-individualistic tradition of successfully resisted temptation.12

The Roderic Bowen Library holds a copy of an edition of Comus published in 1798 and dedicated by Henry John Todd (a copy of whose manuscript of the masque is included in the edition) to Francis Henry Egerton, a descendent of the family whose children first performed the masque, and of the Right Honourable John, Earl of Bridgewater, Viscount Brackley, whose formal installation as Lord Lieutenant of Wales and the border counties, and President of the Council in the Marches of Wales, the masque was originally performed to celebrate.13

It has often been observed that Milton’s life and work fall into two halves, the divide occurring with the outbreak of the Civil War when all his Renaissance poems - poems which Sir Henry Wotton in a letter which had gratified Milton and was published in his Poems of 1645, had commended for ‘a certain Dorique delicacy’14 unparalleled in the language – were to become to their author ‘triming’ and ‘toys’: he ceased to value them highly.15 Milton’s second ‘career’ began in the 1640s when he made the ‘grand tour’, travelling first to France, then to Italy, to Florence, ‘a City’ which, according to Toland, ‘for the Politeness of the Language, and the Civility of the Inhabitants he always infinitly admir’d’.16 Recalled by news of Civil War in England, he  returned via Rome, where he met Galileo, imprisoned by the Papacy, and evaded a plot against him by the English Jesuits ‘by reason of the great Freedom he us’d in his Discourses of Religion’.17 His latent patriotism fired, Milton declared that “What the greatest and choicest wits of Athens, Rome, or modern Italy, and those Hebrews of old, did for their country, I, in my proportion might do for mine.”’18

When he returned to Englandwith a feeling of his amassed powers, Miltonbegan to take a role in public affairs. By the mid 1640s, he was embroiled in writing controversial legal, political, and moral prose pamphlets and treatises, including the so-called ‘Divorce Tracts’. Milton had set out to find a ‘fit audience, though few’, a new elite based on the Long Parliament and the ecclesiastical Assembly of Westminster,19 to which he addressed the first of these, a quarto printed by Thomas Paine and Matthew Simmons entitled The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce (1643).

The Presbyterian divines of the Assembly did not receive the first edition with favour and some of them accused Milton of advocating “divorce at pleasure” and debauchery, harshly criticizing him from pulpits all over London. The Roderic Bowen Library holds one copy of this first edition,20 of which at least forty-two copies are known to exist, and also a copy of the second, revised edition, which was published in the following year.21 This was followed by The Judgement of Martin Bucer (1644),Colasterion (1645), and Tetrachordon (1645). Lampeter does not hold copies of the first editions of these three tracts, though they were reprinted in the first collected edition of Milton’s English prose works, which appeared in 1697, a copy of which was donated to the library by Thomas Phillips (1760-1851).22 Phillips also donated a copy of A Complete Collection of the Historical, Political, and Miscellaneous Works of John Milton, which was published in the following year.23 This was the first complete collection ofMilton’s prose works, with the influential prefatory biography by John Toland. Facing the general title-page of the volume is a portrait ofMilton by William Faithorne.

Image: Portrait of Milton by William Faithorne, A Complete Collection of the Historical, Political, and Miscellaneous Works of John Milton, both English and Latin. With som Papers never before Publish’d. To which is Prefix’d the Life of the Author […] (Amsterdam (London), 1698)] 

Learned as he was, Milton reaches for his shelves of books at every opportunity, and especially for Scripture, to present a logical and moral case for the reform of divorce law in The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce, that it would preserve the morality and high state of marriage, the divinely ordained reason for which he sees as ‘the apt and cheerfull conversation of man with woman, to comfort and refresh him against the evil of solitary life’, and not procreation as was customarily thought. Yet Milton’s method can be self-righteous in tone and seem motivated by self-interest and superimposed on a sense of having been injured in his own late-begun and hastily and imprudently undertaken marriage in June 1642 to Mary Powell, of a Royalist family, who was about half his age, and who after one month in Milton’s house went to her family and friends in the country and remained away. According to Annabel Patterson, in her essay, ‘Milton, Marriage and Divorce’:

Roughly speaking, [Milton] begins with an ill-concealed personal bitterness, moves towards formal high-mindedness by citing a vast chorus of authorities for his position, and ends with renewed personal bitterness, and coarseness – but now redirected to his ‘answerers’. More importantly, … Miltondiscovered for himself the principle of companionate marriage as Protestantism was still inventing it, and the engine of his discovery was humiliation and disappointment. That is to say, by finding Mary Milton wanting (and missing), he imagined in the hole she had made in his feelings what a good marriage might be. Consequently he could see for himself, and with acid clarity, what was wrong with a legal system that encouraged hypocrisy, stressed the dynastic and physical aspects of marriage over the psychological and sociable, and did not allow for second chances.24 

Milton the moral and political pamphleteer of the 1640s was also given by the Republican Council of State the task of refuting the pious and sentimental ‘King’s Book’ allegedly written by the martyred Charles I. Milton’s work, which almost cost him his own head eleven years later, was entitled Eikonoklastes in Answer To a Book Intitl’d Eikon Basilika, The Portraiture of his Sacred Majesty in his Solitudes and Sufferings, and the Roderic Bowen Library holds a first edition.25

Acquired by Thomas Phillips (1760-1851), The Paradise Lost of Milton(1827) contains illustrations designed and engraved by John Martin.29Typical in the skill with which emotion, mood and atmosphere are evoked is the illustration shown here of the temptation of Eve by Satan in the form of the serpent, in which the Garden of Eden appears simultaneously idyllic and menacing. 

But perhaps more than any other nineteenth-century illustrations of Milton’s epic, those in the 1882 edition of Paradise Lost by the highly accomplished artist Gustave Doré, (four of which are shown above), capture the Romantic grandeur then associated with Satan, and the sensual intimacy and companionate love shared by Adam and Eve, as they are watched over by angels in their pre-lapserian world.30

The Roderic Bowen Library also holds a copy of Saggio di Critica sul Paradiso Perduto(1818), by Fillippo Scolari, which includes an explanation of why Paradise Lost was placed on the Roman Catholic Index Librorum Prohibitorum.31 And although it does not hold a very early edition of Paradise Lost, it does hold a copy of the first edition ofParadise Regain’d and Samson Agonistes, published together in 1671.32 Samson Agonistes has a separate title-page, the imprint the same, and is separately paginated, although the signatures are continuous. Paradise Regained was republished in 1795 and reissued probably in 1800 with notes of various authors by Charles Dunster.33

In 1672, Milton’s textbook Artis Logicae Plenior Institutio was published, though it is thought that this was first published in 1670, but no copy has been found.34 The final work to appear during the life-time of the author was Epistolarum familiarum liber unus(1674), the first edition of Milton’s private letters and academic exercises, all in Latin, which Thomas Burgess was again careful to collect.35 Two almost identical issues were then published in 1676, of Literae Pseudo-Senatus Anglicani, a surreptitious publication of despatches written by Milton in his capacity of Latin secretary to the Council of State, between the years 1649 and 1659. Lampeter’s copy is of the second, more common of the issues.36 An anonymous translation of these Latin letters of state was published in 1700, as Oliver Cromwell’s Letters to Foreign Princes and States, and the Roderic Bowen Library holds a copy.37

Ten years after the publication of the 1676 Literae appeared Paradisus amissa, poema heroicum, a Latin translation ofParadise Lost by an unidentified ‘J.C.’ Parker comments that this work ‘was the harbinger of a succession of Anglo-Latinists who were seemingly determined to make Milton as intelligible to Virgil as Virgil so clearly was to Milton’.38 This work survives in perhaps only twelve known copies, of which one resides among the tracts of the Roderic Bowen Library.39 In 1686 a reprint of Milton’s earlier work, The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates (1649), appeared under the titlePro Populo Adversus Tyrannos: Sovereign Right and Power of the People over Tyrants. This tract survives in at least twenty-seven known copies: Lampeter’s tract collection contains three.40

Milton was ‘inordinately proud’ of his next work, Angli Pro Populo Anglicano Defensio (1651), ‘which brought him European fame – or notoriety – because it was an officially commissioned and effective “defense of the English people” against an attack on the new Republic by one of Europe’s greatest scholars, the learned Claudius Salmasius’. ‘Milton, as spokesman for his country, believed it to be a reasoned defense of regicide, an eloquent defense of liberty, and his best work in prose.’26 Lampeter holds two copies of the bibliographically complex first edition and also two copies published in 1652.27 In 1659, by which time Milton was now blind, his defence of freedom of conscience, A Treatise of Civil Power in Ecclesiastical Causes, was published. Thomas Burgess acquired a copy of this now quite scarce duodecimo volume which remains in Lampeter’s library.28

Ending his poetic career as Virgil and Spenser did with the epic genre, Milton’s Paradise Lost was published in quarto in 1667, 1668, and 1669, and then in folio in 1688, and his Paradise Regain’d and Samson Agonistes were published together in 1671. Milton, it has been said, is the most biblical of English poets: all three of his late epics have narratives based on episodes in biblical narratives. UWTSD does not hold a very early edition of Paradise Lost, though it does hold some important later illustrated editions.

MiltonMedina

With the publication in folio of The Poetical Works of Mr. John Milton, in 1695, ‘Milton became an English classic, and his publisher, Jacob Tonson, reputedly became rich’. This important edition is bibliographically complicated, and some parts were sold separately. Lampeter’s copy comes from the library of Thomas Burgess and lacks the common title-page. Paradise Lost (‘The Sixth Edition’) has its own title-page and was printed by Thomas Hodgkin ‘with Sculptures’.41 An image from this edition is shown here.

The Roderic Bowen Library holds copies of several editions of Milton or published responses to his work with his portrait in them. Among the earliest is that which appears in Joseph Jane’s Eikonaklastos: The Image Vnbroaken (1651), a response to Eikonoklastes. Facing the title-page is J. Hulett’s medallion portrait of Milton (shown here).42One of Vertue's portraits of Milton can be found in the edition of Paradise Lost published by Tonson et al., in 1732.43 Francis Peck's New Memoirs of the Life and Poetical Works of Mr. John Milton (1740) is illustrated with a now well-known mezzotint portrait of the poet by J. Faber.44 This is also produced in the 1699 edition of John Toland's life of Milton, though there it is of inferior quality.45 An oval portrait of Milton by N.Parr can be found in James Paterson's Complete Commentary, with Etymological, Explanatory, Critical and Classical Notes on Milton's Paradise Lost, published in 1744.46 The Poetical Works of John Milton was published by William Pickering in 1826,47 with an engraved title-page illustration of Milton composing Paradise Lost, his amanuenses at his feet. Although by now blind, Milton appears divinely inspired with heavenly light. In this edition, Paradise Lost itself is illustrated by various artists and engravers.

James Ogden begins his essay, ‘Bishop Burgess and John Milton’, by quoting Toland’s remark that in the latter part of his life, Milton was ‘not a profest Member of any particular Sect among Christians’.48 Yet in the next hundred years Milton’s ‘acceptance as a great English poet was partly owing to the learned labours of senior Anglican clergymen, and when Thomas Burgess was a young man the standard edition of Paradise Lost was that of Thomas Newton the Bishop of Bristol’, a copy of which is held by the Roderic Bowen Library.49 This edition carries another portrait by Vertue,50 as well as illustrations of the poetic text, including one of Eve offering the apple she has plucked from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil to a rather startled Adam.

Burgess himself contributed to critical interpretation of a passage in Book XI of Paradise Lost, in his Essay on the Study of Antiquities (1782).51 He also amassed a significant collection of Milton’s works, including several first editions. When Edward Greswell published his Jannis Miltoni Fabulae Samson Agonistes et Comus, Graece Interpretatus Est, in 1832, he sent a copy to Burgess, with a manuscript letter that is still retained by the Roderic Bowen Library and Archives.52Unsurprisingly then, the discovery in 1823 in the State Paper Office, of a manuscript of a Latin treatise of systematic theology, which was subsequently translated by the King’s librarian Charles Sumner, on the understanding that it was Milton’s work, and published in 1825 as Joannis Miltoni Angli de Doctrina Christiana, led to a debate in which Burgess engaged himself over the treatise’s authorship that is even now unresolved, and to critical inquiry into the reception and appropriation of Milton.53

The incorporation of De Doctrina Christiana into the Miltonic canon as ‘a full statement of his religious beliefs’, presents Milton’s religion as ‘so unorthodox in its blend of beliefs that it set him apart from all existing churches.’54 The treatise is heterodox in various ways and propounds a number of major heresies, radical divergences from generally accepted Protestant teaching which its author defends on both Scriptural and rational grounds. These include Arianism, or anti-trinitarianism, the belief that the Son of God was not consubstantial with the Father; materialism and creation ex deo, the theory according to which God is said to have created the world not out of nothing but out of his own material potency; Arminianism, or the libertarian doctrine of the freedom of the will, as opposed to that of necessity or the Calvinist doctrine of predestination; mortalism, or thnetopsychism, which resting philosophically on animist monism, holds that creation is vibrant with autonomous life, and maintains the unity and interdependence of body and soul, asserting therefore that the soul is mortal and is laid asleep from the hour of death, unto the hour of the resurrection.55

In 1825 Burgess received a copy of the book ‘with a formal and perhaps offensive note from Sumner’, which is still preserved in Burgess’ copy in the Roderic Bowen Library.56 According to Ogden, what alarmed Burgess was the treatise’s encouragement of Unitarianism by its support for the Arian heresy. That it presents ‘the conscientious heretic as the only praiseworthy Christian and the complacent exponent of customary orthodoxy as a contemptible time-server’57 may also have rankled, but when Burgess as Bishop of St David’s founded a college for the education of the Welsh clergy, at Lampeter, in 1822, this area of Wales was the centre of ‘y smotyn du’, the black spot in Cardiganshire where Unitarianism was strongest. Motivated by ‘zeal for the Trinitarian faith’ and determination ‘to vindicate the claim of the illustrious poet to the praise of orthodoxy’,58 Burgess wrote pamphlets maintaining that Milton could not have written the treatise. The first and longest of these, Milton Contrasted with Milton, and with the Scriptures, was printed in 1825. The Roderic Bowen Library and Archives hold not only one copy of this but also an annotated copy.59

Thomas Burgess’ own copy of Milton Contrasted with Milton, and with the Scriptures(Durham: G. Walker, [1825]), annotated in his own hand. MS. UA/TB/44]

‘Soon afterwards appeared Protestant Union, a new edition of Milton’s last religious tract, Of True Religion, with a preface by Burgess’ which compares the poet’s religious principles with those in De Doctrina Christiana.60 Burgess also ‘argued against Milton’s authorship of this treatise in his presidential addresses to the Royal Society of Literature in 1826, 1827 and 1828. Finally he published Milton Not the Author of the Lately Discovered Arian Work De Doctrina Christiana (1829), a collection of all his writings on the matter, Lampeter’s copy of which may be unique.61

It has since been observed that Burgess’ views were generally found unconvincing and lacking in objectivity;62 some like Maurice Kelley have argued that De Doctrina Christiana and Paradise Lost are consistent with each other, and that the systematic theology be used as a gloss on the epic poem.63 But Burgess has also been referred to as ‘a distinguished intellectual’,64 and certainly there were those among his contemporaries who found that his arguments demonstrated inconsistency between the treatise and the Trinitarian views expressed in Milton’s other works, such as the Nativity Ode. Most recently the authors of Milton and the Manuscript of ‘De Doctrina Christiana’ have concluded, however, that the theological treatise rightfully belongs in the Milton canon as a text of the late 1650s. ‘Since it was abandoned while still a work-in-progress, probably half a decade before the completion of Paradise Lost, its value as a guide to the interpretation of the epic is limited’, but ‘seen as a text of the late 1650s, it points, perhaps, to a different lost paradise, that of a republican England that could have been characterized by a genuinely broad toleration, where no orthodoxy would go untested, where all would worship according to their own inner conviction’.65

Peter Mitchell

References

[1] David Norbrook, ‘The Politics of Milton’s Early Poetry’, in John Milton, ed. and intr. by Annabel Patterson, Longman Critical Readers (London and New York: Longman, 1992), pp. 46-64 (p. 52).

[2] An Exhibit of Seveneteenth-Century Editions of Writings by John Milton, preface by William Riley Parker (Bloomington, Indiana: The Lilly Library, 1969), cat.21.

[3] Poems of Mr. John Milton, both English and Latin (London: Printed by Ruth Raworth for Humphrey Mosley, 1645) BUR 03211.

[4] John Milton, The Complete English Poems, ed. and intr. by Gordon Campbell, Everyman’s Library, 97 (London: David Campbell Publishers, 1980; rev. edn 1990), p. ix.

[5] Milton, The Complete English Poems, p. ix.

[6] Milton, The Complete English Poems, p. ix.

[7] Richard Halpern, ‘The Great Instauration: Imaginary Narratives in Milton’s “Nativity Ode”’, in Re-membering Milton: Essays on the Texts and Traditions, ed. by Mary Nyquist and Margaret W. Ferguson (New York & London: Methuen, 1987 c.1988), pp. 3-24.

[8] Catherine Belsey, John Milton: Language, Gender, Power (Oxford, 1988), p. 5.

[9] Norbrook, ‘The Politics of Milton’s Early Poetry’, p. 52.

[10] John Milton, ed. and intr. by Annabel Patterson, Longman Critical Readers (London and New York: Longman, 1992), p. 10.

[11] David Norbrook cited in John Milton, ed. and intr. by Patterson, p. 11.

[12] John Milton, ed. and intr. by Patterson, p. 10; quotation is from Christopher Hill, Milton and the English Revolution, p. 47.

[13] Comus: A Mask Presented at Ludlow Castle (Canterbury: Printed by and for W. Bristow, 1798) BUR 00526.

[14] Graham Parry, The Seventeenth Century: The Intellectual and Cultural Context of English Literature, 1603-1700(London and New York: Longman, 1989; 3rd impr. 1992), p. 77.

[15] J.W. Saunders, A Biographical Dictionary of Renaissance Poets and Dramatists, 1520-1650 (Brighton: Harvester Press, 1983), p. 114.

[16] A Complete Collection of the Historical, Political, and Miscellaneous Works of John Milton, both English and Latin. With som Papers never before Publish’d. To which is Prefix’d the Life of the Author […] (Amsterdam (London), 1698), ‘The Life of John Milton’, by John Toland, p. 8.

[17] Toland, ‘The Life of John Milton’, pp. 9-10.

[18] Saunders, A Biographical Dictionary of Renaissance Poets and Dramatists, 1520-1650, p. 114.

[19] Saunders, A Biographical Dictionary of Renaissance Poets and Dramatists, 1520-1650, pp. 114-15.

[20] The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce (London: Printed by T[homas] P[aine] and M[atthew] S[immons], 1643) T314.

[21] The Doctrine & Discipline of Divorce … Now the second time revis’d and much augmented (London, 1644) BUR 02987. An Exhibit of Seveneteenth-Century Editions of Writings by John Milton, cat. 14, states: ‘Milton greatly revised this edition, of which at least eighty-six copies are known’.

[22] The Works of Mr. John Milton (London, 1697) PHI 01155.

[23] A Complete Collection of the Historical, Political, and Miscellaneous Works of John Milton … To which is Prefix’d the Life of the Author, PHI 01157.

[24] Annabel Patterson, ‘Milton, Marriage and Divorce’, Ch. 17 of A Companion to Milton, ed. by Thomas N. Corns (Oxford: Blackwell, 2001), pp. 279-93 (p. 282).

[25] Eikonoklastes in Answer To a Book Intitl’d Eikon Basilika, The Portraiture of his Sacred Majesty in his Solitudes and Sufferings (London: Matthew Simmons, 1649) BUR 02984. According to An Exhibit of Seveneteenth-Century Editions of Writings by John Milton, cat. 26, ‘At least 103 surviving copies of the first edition are known, despite the fact that copies were eventually confiscated and burned’.

[26] An Exhibit of Seventeenth-Century Editions of Writings by John Milton, cat. 28.

[27] Joannis Miltoni Angli Pro Populo Anglicano Defensio (London: Typis Du-Gardianis, 1651) T499; PHI 03962; (1652) YM 157; BUR 03279. See F.F. Madan, ‘Milton, Salmasius, and Dugard’, The Library, ser. 4, vol. 4 (1923), 119-45; ‘Revised Bibliography of … Milton’s Pro populo Anglicano defensio’, The Library, ser. 5, vol. 9 (1954); An Exhibit of Seveneteenth-Century Editions of Writings by John Milton, cats. 28-35; James Ogden, ‘Bishop Burgess and John Milton’, Trivium, 29 & 30, The Founders’ Library, University of Wales, Lampeter, Bibliographical and Contextual Studies(1997), pp. 79-98, Appendix: Burgess’ Milton Collection (p. 95).

[28] A Treatise of Civil Power in Ecclesiastical Causes; Shewing That it is not lawfull for any power on earth to compel in matters of Religion (London: Printed by Tho[mas] Newcomb, 1659) BUR 03280.

[29] The Paradise Lost of Milton; with illustrations, designed and engraved by John Martin (London: Septimus Prowett, 1827) PHI 00556.

[30] Milton’s Paradise Lost (London: Cassell, Petter, Galpin & Co., 1882) F ELLIS PR 3560 MIL.

[31] Fillippo Scolari, Saggio di Critica sul Paradiso Perduto (Venice: Rizzi, 1818) BUR 00978.

[32] Paradise Regain’d. A Poem. In IV Books. To which is added Samson Agonistes (London: Printed by J.M[acock] for John Starkey, 1671) BUR 02967.

[33] Paradise Regained, with notes of various authors by Charles Dunster (London: Printed by Geo. Stafford, [1800?]) BUR 00255.

[34] Joannis Miltoni Angli, Artis Logicae Plenior Institutio (London: Impensis Spencer Hickman, 1672) BUR 03226.

[35] Joannis Miltonii Angli Epistolarum familiarum liber unus (London: Impensis Brabazoni Aylmeri, 1674) BUR 03229.

[36] Literae Pseudo-Senatus Anglicani ([London], 1676) BUR 03285.

[37] Oliver Cromwell’s Letters to Foreign Princes and States (London: Printed for John Nutt, 1700) T201.

[38] An Exhibit of Seveneteenth-Century Editions of Writings by John Milton, cat. 72.

[39] Paradisus amissa, poema heroicum (London: Impensis Thomae Dring, 1686) T407.

[40] Pro Populo Adversus Tyrannos: Sovereign Right and Power of the People over Tyrants (London, 1689) T277; T328; T509.

[41] The Poetical Works of Mr. John Milton (London: Printed for Jacob Tonson, 1695) BUR 00217.

[42] Joseph Jane, Eikonaklastos: The Image Vnbroaken ([Leiden?], 1651) BUR 02968. See Dr Williamson, The Portraits, Prints and Writings of John Milton (New York: Burt Franklin, 1908; repr. 1968), cat. 203, p. 77.

[43] Milton’s Paradise Lost (London: Printed for J. Tonson, 1732) PHI 01580.

[44] Francis Peck, New Memoirs of the Life and Poetical Works of Mr. John Milton (London, 1740) PHI 01577. See Williamson, The Portraits, Prints and Writings of John Milton, cat. 227, p. 83.

[45] John Toland, The Life of John Milton (London: Printed by John Darby, 1699) BUR 02695.

[46] James Paterson, Complete Commentary, with Etymological, Explanatory, Critical and Classical Notes on Milton’s Paradise Lost (London: Printed by R. Walker, 1744) BUR 02253. See Williamson, The Portraits, Prints and Writings of John Milton, cat. 144, p. 67.

[47] The Poetical Works of John Milton (London: William Pickering, 1826) ODS 01761.

[48] A Complete Collection of the Historical, Political, and Miscellaneous Works of John Milton, ‘The Life of John Milton’, by John Toland; in Helen Darbishire, ed., The Early Lives of Milton (London: Constable, 1965), p. 195, cited in Ogden, ‘Bishop Burgess and John Milton’, p. 79.

[49] Ogden, ‘Bishop Burgess and John Milton’, p. 79; Paradise Lost, 8th edn, with notes of various authors, by Thomas Newton, 2 vols (London: Printed for W. Strahan, J.F. and C. Rivington, et al., 1778) ODS 01004.

[50] See Williamson, The Portraits, Prints and Writings of John Milton, cat. 167, p. 71.

[51] An Essay on the Study of Antiquities (Oxford: Sold by D. Prince and J. Cooke et al., 1782) BUR 02226.

[52] Jannis Miltoni Fabulae Samson Agonistes et Comus, Graece Interpretatus Est (Oxford, 1832) BUR 01025; MS. UA/TB/36.

[53] Charles Sumner, ed., Joannis Miltoni Angli de Doctrina Christiana (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1825). An English translation was published in the same year under the title A Treatise on Christian Doctrine (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1825).

[54] Perez Zagorin, Milton, Aristocrat & Rebel: The Poet and His Politics (Rochester, NY and Woodbridge: D.S. Brewer, 1992), pp. 99, 101.

[55] All of these heresies are discussed by Zagorin, Milton, Aristocrat & Rebel, p. 101; John Rumrich, ‘Radical Heterodoxy and Heresy’, Ch. 9 of A Companion to Milton, pp. 141-56 (pp. 142-43).

[56] Joannis Miltoni Angli de Doctrina Christiana, BUR 00132. Burgess also received a copy of the English translation published in the same year: BUR 00131.

[57] Rumrich, ‘Radical Heterodoxy and Heresy’, p. 152.

[58] John Scandrett Harford, The Life of Thomas Burgess (London: Longman et al., 1840), p. 346.

[59] Milton Contrasted with Milton, and with the Scriptures (Durham: G. Walker, [1825]) T840; MS. UA/TB/44.

[60] Thomas Burgess, ed., Protestant Union: A Treatise of True Religion by John Milton (London, 1826) BUR 00806.

[61] Milton Not the Author of the Lately Discovered Arian Work De Doctrina Christiana (London: Thomas Brettell, 1829) BUR 00819

[62] Ogden, ‘Bishop Burgess and John Milton’, pp. 79-80.

[63] Maurice Kelley, This Great Argument: A Study of Milton’s ‘De Doctrina Christiana’ as a Gloss upon ‘Paradise Lost’(Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1962).

[64] William B. Hunter, ‘The Provenance of the Christian Doctrine: Addenda from the Bishop to Salisbury’, Studies in English Literature 1500-1900, 33 (1993), 191-207.

[65] Gordon Campbell, Thomas N. Corns, John K. Hale and Fiona J. Tweedie, Milton and the Manuscript of 'De Doctrina Christiana' (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).